How does Electricity Work?

Discover the science behind electricity and learn how it powers our daily lives. Read on to find out the answer to the question “how does electricity work?

Electricity has become an essential part of our daily lives. From charging our smartphones and laptops to powering our homes and workplaces, we rely on electricity to carry out our daily activities. But have you ever wondered how electricity works? In this article, we will explore the science behind electricity and how it powers our world.

What is Electricity?

Electricity flows through wires connected to a power source

Electricity flows through wires connected to a power source

Electricity is a form of energy that results from the movement of charged particles, such as electrons or ions. It can occur naturally, such as lightning, or be artificially generated by power plants.

The Nature of Electrons

A person holds a battery, a source of electrical energy

A person holds a battery, a source of electrical energy

Electrons are negatively charged particles that orbit around the nucleus of an atom. They are the key to understanding how electricity works. When electrons move from one atom to another, they create an electric current. This movement of electrons is known as an electric charge. The direction of the electric charge is from negative to positive.

Electrons can move from atom to atom in different ways. In conductors, such as copper, electrons move freely, creating a flow of electric current. In insulators, such as rubber, electrons are tightly bound to their atoms, making it difficult for them to move and creating a barrier to electric current.

Conductors and Insulators

Conductors are materials that allow electric current to flow through them. Metals, such as copper and aluminum, are good conductors because they have free electrons that can move easily. Other materials, such as saltwater and graphite, can also conduct electricity.

Insulators, on the other hand, are materials that do not allow electric current to flow through them. Rubber, glass, and plastic are common insulators, as they have tightly bound electrons that do not move easily. Insulators are used to prevent electric shock and to protect electrical equipment from damage.

Electric Current

Electric current is the flow of electric charge in a circuit. It is measured in amperes (A) and is the rate at which electric charge flows through a conductor. The amount of current that flows in a circuit depends on the voltage and resistance of the circuit.

Voltage is the force that drives the electric current. It is measured in volts (V) and is the difference in electric potential energy between two points in a circuit. Resistance is the opposition to the flow of electric current. It is measured in ohms (Ω) and depends on the material and dimensions of the conductor.

Ohm’s law states that the current in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance. This means that as the voltage increases, the current increases, and as the resistance increases, the current decreases.

Types of Electricity

There are three main types of electricity: direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and static electricity.

Direct Current (DC)

Direct current is a type of electricity that flows in one direction. It is commonly used in batteries and electronic devices, such as laptops and smartphones.

Alternating Current (AC)

Alternating current is a type of electricity that periodically reverses direction. It is the most common type of electricity used in homes and businesses. AC power is generated at power plants and transmitted through power lines.

Static Electricity

Static electricity is a buildup of electric charge on the surface of an object. It occurs when there is a buildup of electrons on one surface and a deficit of electrons on another. Lightning is a type of static electricity that occurs naturally.

Practical Applications of Electricity

Electricity has many practical applications in our daily lives. Here are a few examples:


Electricity powers the light bulbs in our homes, offices, and streets. It allows us to see in the dark and provides a sense of safety and security.


Electricity is used to power motors in vehicles, elevators, and other machinery. It allows us to move heavy objects and perform tasks that would be difficult or impossible to do by hand.


Electricity is used to power a wide range of electronic devices, including smartphones, laptops, and televisions. It allows us to communicate with each other, access information, and stay connected to the world around us.

In conclusion, understanding how electricity works is essential as it powers the world around us. From lighting our homes to charging our devices, electricity has become an integral part of our lives. At Reviews AZ, we cover a range of products that rely on electricity, such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, and smart home devices. Stay tuned for more informative articles that will help you make informed decisions about the products you use every day.